Many parents have written in to ask how they can support their child’s literacy development at home, particularly in the area of reading comprehension and vocabulary development. I turned to Connecticut reading expert, Sheryl Knapp, who graciously agreed to write a guest post on this topic. To read more about Sheryl’s work, check out her website at Literacy Best Practices.
5 Ways to Support Your Child’s Literacy Development at Home
by Sheryl Knapp, M.Ed., A/AOGPE
It’s the end of summer recess and with the new school year comes new teachers, a new curriculum – and, for parents of students with significant disabilities, a new educational environment to navigate. Here are ways you can support your child’s literacy development this year, regardless of your child’s age or reading level:
1. Shake it up! When reading with your child, utilize a variety of text. Nonfiction can be an excellent vehicle for teaching content area vocabulary. Since nonfiction tends to be more content-dense, you will need to approach it more slowly and deliberately; teach your child to re-read confusing or complex sections to facilitate understanding. “Authentic” text—such as magazines, guidebooks, newspapers, journals and websites—can be particularly motivating for children, and exposes them to a variety of writing styles and formats.
Making it work:
- Read a reference guide on a topic of interest to your child – for instance, a guide to dog breeds – and practice using section headings and/or indexes to locate specific topics.
- Discuss the use of various fonts (e.g., italics), callout boxes, and other print tools that highlight and/or summarize critical text.
2. Maximize engagement. Reading comprehension is an active process, requiring constant interaction with the text. Proficient readers maintain an ongoing internal dialogue as they read, continually checking that text makes sense and thinking about questions that arise as they read. For some children, this process must be taught directly and explicitly.
Making it work:
- While reading, model self-questioning strategies, posing appropriate questions (“Why did he….?”) and statements (“I am surprised that he ….”), and making predictions (“I think he is going to…”).
- Encourage your child to “make a movie in your head” while reading by helping him form visual images and referencing these images wherever possible.
- Always watch for overt signs that your child has “tuned out” – in particular, if she looks away from the text – and immediately work to re-engage her.
3. Focus on the “big picture.” Many children with intellectual disabilities have difficulty sifting through details to derive the central interpretation of text. When a reader focuses primarily on individual sentences or facts – particularly less relevant or more peripheral elements – she may miss the “big picture.”
Making it work:
- A scaffolding approach is often helpful in shifting focus to more central ideas and themes within text. Help your child to organize and categorize ideas presented in the text through ongoing discussion.
- Use targeted follow-up questions to encourage your child to delve more deeply into the main ideas within the text. If your child supplies a single-word answer to a question, try to get her to provide more details or otherwise elaborate on her response. Help her to draw conclusions or establish a broader understanding of the text based on these details.
4. Model appropriate uses of prior knowledge. Proficient readers make personal connections with text, drawing on prior knowledge and experiences while reading to make sense of text and to determine if this knowledge can help them better understand the content. For many students with Down syndrome, this prior knowledge at times impedes (or overwhelms) the content contained within the text rather than enhancing it.
Making it work:
- Ask leading questions pertaining to relevant experiences – for instance “Doesn’t this look like the fin we saw on the shark at the aquarium last week?” or “Do you remember how you felt when you…?”
- Balance prior knowledge with text content. Help your child to use his prior knowledge or experiences to enhance his understanding of text – without overwhelming it. For instance, if reading a book about sharks, make references to observations from a previous trip to the aquarium while also emphasizing elements of the text that differ from what was observed.
5. Don’t forget prosody and phrasing! Proficient readers “group words in ways that help them gain meaning from what they read… read[ing] effortlessly and with expression. Their reading sounds natural, as if they are speaking” (Put Reading First, 2006). Proper phrasing and inflection are critical to maximizing text comprehension, yet struggling readers frequently sound laborious or “flat” when reading.
Making it work:
- Choose text that your child can read comfortably. Otherwise, so much of her attention will be required for the word identification process that little or no capacity will be available to devote to determining the meaning of the text she is reading – which is critical to applying appropriate inflection.
- Model appropriate intonation, inflection and pacing, as demonstrated by the teacher in this video.
- Employ both choral (simultaneous) and echo (alternating) reading, enabling your child to practice the inflection and pacing modeled.
- Try a theatrical approach to the dialogue within text, perhaps serving as the “narrator” and having your child read each character’s dialogue – with varying (and exaggerated) inflection employed, based on the character type (e.g., a gruff voice for an annoyed neighbor). Text dialogue often provides an ideal vehicle for teaching and practicing natural inflection.
The support that parents provide at home helps students with Down syndrome to generalize concepts outside of the academic environment – and utilize all those great literacy strategies they are learning at school to the text they encounter in the “real world.”
4 thoughts on “Guest post: Back to school tips from Sheryl Knapp!”
This is such a great article. I wish there were some way to convey how important this stuff is!!!!! Reading is about so much more than decoding words!!!!
I found this article extremely useful especially the areas of “Making it Work”. I especially love that Ms. Knapp provided strategies such as having the child model intonation, inflection, and pace. Also, I know some children that especially like to read magazines or newspapers because they can actively participate in conversations with peers or family members when they are informed about current issues and interests. Asking questions to promote reflection and prediction is so important in reading!! Loved this article!
The techniques that Ms. Knapp has suggested for supporting students’ literacy development seems to be especially useful in reading comprehension. One of the steps I believe is most important is teaching children how to connect what they are reading to information and knowledge that they already have from prior experiences. If a child is able to read and make connections with the text context it shows that they are reading with understanding and helps to enhance their comprehension. It seems to be especially useful for parents to help their child by asking guiding questions while reading passages to keep the child attending to the information and focusing on the main ideas of the text. This article has very useful techniques on how to develop a child’s literacy outside of the classroom!
I not only enjoyed reading this article, but learned great strategies to use while reading with children who have disabilities. The strategies are very realistic and easy to incorporate on an ongoing basis with all children. National Geographic is one type of non-fiction magazine that can be very fun and interesting for kids to read but there are so many others. There are also many on-line articles for kids to read and visuals that go with them. I really liked the idea of creating a movie in a child’s head while they are reading to help comprehension!